Kim clan’s third generation myth

It's widely speculated that Kim Jong-un does not command the same loyalty and respect among military leaders as his grandfather and father did

April 19, 2017 4:13 PM (UTC+8)
The front of an annual central report meeting released by North Korea's Korean Central News Agency (KCNA) in Pyongyang. Photo: KCNA via Reuters
The front of an annual central report meeting released by North Korea's Korean Central News Agency (KCNA) in Pyongyang. Photo: KCNA via Reuters

North Korean leader Kim Jong-un had reason to smile from his balcony as he saluted thousands of troops who goose-stepped in perfect formation across the square below. Then rumbled a parade of tanks, missiles and other heavy military items from his glorified arsenal of sophisticated weaponry.

Finally came the masses of cheering locals waving flags and shouting the names of Kim Jong-un and his grandfather Kim Il-sung, the deceased national founder for whom the celebration was held in honor of his 105th birthday anniversary.

But while Kim Il-Sung’s legacy is secure, Kim Jong-un’s is less so as his provocations isolate the country from even its erstwhile allies. His national hero grandfather could at least claim to have been involved in an armed struggle for independence against the colonial Japanese, even if the official version of his life is mostly myth.

People react as they march past foreign journalists and the stand with North Korean leader Kim Jong Un during a military parade marking the 105th birth anniversary of the country's founding father Kim Il Sung, in Pyongyang, April 15, 2017. The float in the background is a stylised rocket artillery launcher, adorned with the words “Pyongjin Line” on its front. Pyongjin refers to a relatively recent North Korean policy which stresses the dual pursuit of economic and nuclear development. The globe on the side of the float features doves, a symbol of peace, but is flanked by North Korean missile designs, including the recently tested “Pukkuksong” submarine-launched ballistic missile.   REUTERS/Damir Sagolj     SEARCH "PARADE WID" FOR THIS STORY. SEARCH "WIDER IMAGE" FOR ALL STORIES.? - RTS12G61
A military parade marking the 105th birth anniversary of the country’s founding father Kim Il Sung, in Pyongyang, April 15, 2017. Photo: Reuters/Damir Sagolj 

Kim Il-sung’s son and successor, Kim Jong-il, was born in February 1942 in the Russian Far East village and did not reside in Korea until 1946 at the earliest. North Korean propagandists have nonetheless asserted he was born in a guerrilla camp on the slopes of Paektu mountain in the Korean peninsula’s north, where his first toys were allegedly guns and bandoliers.

That origin myth could be perpetuated with some imaginative finesse, but it has been much harder to claim that the third generation of Kim’s, including current leader Kim Jong-un, has any heroic military experience whatsoever.

State mouthpiece media has unconvincingly asserted that Kim Jong-un personally directed the artillery during skirmishes with South Korea after he became “supreme leader” following the death of his father in December 2011.

He has since closely emulated his grandfather by always smiling for official pictures and imitating his shaved-side hairstyle. But, at the tender age of 33 and lacking any true combat experience, it is not far-fetched to speculate that Kim Jong-un does not command the same loyalty and respect among senior military leaders as his father and grandfather did.

North Korean leader Kim Jung Un supervises a demonstration of a new rocket engine for the geo-stationary satellite at the Sohae Space Center n this undated photo released by North Korea's Korean Central News Agency (KCNA) in Pyongyang September 20, 2016.      KCNA via REUTERS     ATTENTION EDITORS - THIS IMAGE WAS PROVIDED BY A THIRD PARTY. EDITORIAL USE ONLY. REUTERS IS UNABLE TO INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THIS IMAGE. NO THIRD PARTY SALES. SOUTH KOREA OUT.  - RTSOJMM
North Korean leader Kim Jung Un supervises a demonstration of a new rocket engine for the geo-stationary satellite at the Sohae Space Center in Pyongyang on September 20, 2016. Photo: Korean Central News Agency (KCNA) via Reuters

While reports of internal purges and an alleged 2013 assassination attempt against Kim Jong-un have come mostly from South Korean intelligence sources, indications of internal discord cannot be discarded entirely as anti-Pyongyang propaganda.

What is known for certain is that Kim Jong-un had Jang Song-taek, the husband of his aunt Kim Kyong-hui, executed in 2013. Jang, then a government policy advisor, apparently made the fatal mistake of prioritizing economic development over an official military-first policy, which Kim Jong-un inherited from his father Kim Jong-il.

Kim Jong-un’s main – many would argue only – claim to legitimacy is that he hails from the ruling Kim dynasty. That’s an increasingly expansive claim, however. His father was known to have at least seven children with four different wives and mistresses.

North Korean leader Kim Jong-il (R) looks at his youngest son Kim Jong-un as they watch a parade to commemorate the 65th anniversary of founding of the Workers' Party of Korea in Pyongyang October 10, 2010. Secretive North Korea's leader-in-waiting, the youngest son of ailing ruler Kim Jong-il, took centre stage during a massive military parade on Sunday, appearing live for the first time in public.    REUTERS/Petar Kujundzic  (NORTH KOREA - Tags: POLITICS ANNIVERSARY IMAGES OF THE DAY) - RTXT97K
North Korean leader Kim Jong-il (R) looks at his youngest son Kim Jong-un as they watch a parade to commemorate the 65th anniversary of founding of the Workers’ Party of Korea in Pyongyang October 10, 2010. Photo: Reuters/Petar Kujundzic 

His first wife, Hong Il-chun, bore him only a daughter, so he took a mistress, Song Hye-rim, an actress at the Korean Film Art Studio in Pyongyang. She became the mother of Kim Jong-nam, born in 1971 and assassinated by nerve agent in a suspected official North Korean hit at Kuala Lumpur’s airport in February this year.

Kim Jong-nam was known to be immensely loyal to his father and was later made head of the Korean Computer Center in Pyongyang. But he fell from family favor in May 2001, when he was caught at Tokyo’s Narita airport traveling on a passport he held from the Dominican Republic.

He had reportedly arrived with a group of North Korean children to visit Tokyo Disneyland but was expelled before taking any joyrides.

This photo taken on February 11, 2007 shows a man believed to be then-North Korean leader Kim Jong-Il's eldest son, Kim Jong-Nam, walking amongst journalists upon his arrival at Beijing's international airport.The half-brother of North Korean leader Kim Jong-Un, who has been murdered in Malaysia, pleaded for his life after a failed assassination bid in 2012, lawmakers briefed by South Korea's spy chief said on February 15, 2017. / AFP PHOTO / JIJI PRESS / JIJI PRESS / Japan OUT
Kim Jong-Nam, walking amongst journalists upon his arrival at Beijing’s international airport, on February 11, 2007. Photo: AFP via JiJi Press

After that debacle, he went into self-imposed exile with his wife and children in Macau, allegedly under China’s protection. He even gave occasional interviews to foreign media where he expressed critical views of the Pyongyang regime.

However, little is known about Kim Jong-il’s third consort, Kim Hong-suk. She reportedly gave birth to two daughters whose current whereabouts are unknown. Kim Jong-il’s fourth female partner, Ko Yong-hui, was a performer of the Mansudae Dance Troupe and is the mother of Kim Jong-un, his elder brother Kim Jong-chul and younger sister Kim Yo-jong.

A still image taken from a Korean Broadcasting System video and provided by the Kyodo news agency, shows a man reported by the network to be Kim Jong Chol, the middle son of North Korean leader Kim Jong Il, at an Eric Clapton concert in Singapore on February 14, 2011. Kim is an avid Clapton fan according to South Korean media.  REUTERS/KBS via Kyodo  (SINGAPORE - Tags: POLITICS ENTERTAINMENT) JAPAN OUT. NO COMMERCIAL OR EDITORIAL SALES IN JAPAN. SOUTH KOREA OUT. NO COMMERCIAL OR EDITORIAL SALES IN SOUTH KOREA. THIS IMAGE HAS BEEN SUPPLIED BY A THIRD PARTY. IT IS DISTRIBUTED, EXACTLY AS RECEIVED BY REUTERS, AS A SERVICE TO CLIENTS. FOR EDITORIAL USE ONLY. NOT FOR SALE FOR MARKETING OR ADVERTISING CAMPAIGNS - RTR2IMYD
Kim Jong-chol in a still image taken from a Korean Broadcasting System video and provided by the Kyodo news agency at an Eric Clapton concert in Singapore on February 14, 2011. Photo: Reuters/KBS via Kyodo

While Kim Yo-jong, head of North Korea’s Propaganda and Agitation Department, is a known trusted adviser to Kim Jong-un, the elder brother Kim Jong-chul lives abroad. He has attracted international publicity as an ardent fan of rock and roll start Eric Clapton and has been spotted at the celebrated guitarist’s concerts in various international cities.

Kim Jong-chul’s role in the present regime is a matter of conjecture, but it is widely believed that he played a role in the arrest and execution of Jang Song-taek.

Several of Kim Jong-il’s children, including Kim Jong-nam, Kim Jong-un Kim Jong-chul and Kim Yo-jong, were educated at prestigious private schools in Switzerland. That led many to hope and believe they would have a broader, perhaps even more liberal, outlook than their parents and grandparents.

But Kim Jong-un’s time in power shows that internal leadership struggles and Byzantine politics, not Western influence, will determine North Korea’s political future. Despite his bloodline and mythological heroism, it is unclear whether he will continue to enjoy the military support he needs to sustain the family dynasty.

Bertil Lintner has reported on North Korea’s weapons of mass destruction for Jane’s Defense, the Far Eastern Economic Review and Wall Street Journal, and is the author of Dear Leader, Great Leader: Demystifying North Korea under the Kim Clan

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