Petraeus drums up support in Kyrgyzstan
By Farangis Najibullah
The head of United States Central Command, General David Petraeus, has met with
Kyrgyz President Kurmanbek Bakiyev in Bishkek to discuss bilateral cooperation
and the situation in Afghanistan.
The visit comes a day after US diplomats confirmed Washington would provide
US$5.5 million to the Kyrgyz government toward the construction of a
counter-terrorism training center in southern Kyrgyzstan. The US Embassy in
Bishkek, in a "talking points" memo issued on March 9, said construction of the
center would begin next year, and that it will belong to Kyrgyzstan.
The memo also stated, "The US does not have and is not seeking
to obtain a base in southern Kyrgyzstan." Nevertheless, Petraeus' visit came
amid speculation that the planned training center could irritate Russia, which
has plans for a military base in that area, as well as regional actors like
Iran, which today expressed concerns over the presence of "foreign military
bases" in the region.
The meeting was not open to the media and was not followed by a press
conference, but a statement on the Kyrgyz president's website said Petraeus
thanked Kyrgyzstan for its support of the US-led Operation Enduring Freedom in
Bakiyev said that "all the main challenges and security threats to Central
Asia" come from Afghanistan, adding, "Therefore, Kyrgyzstan is interested in
providing security and stability in this country, and it will continue to offer
its endeavor for rebuilding Afghanistan - along with the international
Bishkek's role in Afghan mission
Kyrgyzstan hosts a US transit center in Manas airport outside Bishkek, which
plays a key role supplying US-led military operations in Afghanistan and has
been at the center of international attention for months.
A US air base was located in Manas from December 2001, but during a visit to
Moscow in early 2009, Bakiyev announced that the base would be closed down
within six months. The decision was reportedly due to Bishkek and Washington's
failure to agree on a higher rent for the base. But speculation was rife that
Moscow, which had expressed concerns over the duration of the US stay at Manas,
had won Bakiyev over with pledges to provide more than $2 billion in loans,
debt forgiveness and other incentives.
That announcement was followed months later by an announcement by the
Russian-dominated Collective Security and Cooperation Organization that it
planned to set up a counter-terrorism facility in the Batken region. Kyrgyzstan
is already home to a Russian air base in Kant, some 40 kilometers from Manas.
Just ahead of the six-month deadline for US forces to evacuate Manas, a series
of negotiations between Kyrgyz and US officials resulted in a new lease under
which the status of the property was changed from "air base" to "transit
center". Washington agreed to pay $60 million annual rent for Manas, three
times more than previously.
However, the new Manas lease will expire in June 2010, prompting US envoy to
Afghanistan and Pakistan Richard Holbrooke during his recent visit to Bishkek
to express Washington's willingness to extend the contract. The issue also was
seen as a likely topic of conversation during Petraeus' visit.
New counter-terror center
On the eve of Petraeus' visit, in announcing the planned funding for the
construction of a counter-terrorism training center, the US Embassy in Bishkek
said it was "part of broader US-Kyrgyz security cooperation that has recently
included the construction of the Besh-Kungei military hospital and the special
forces, Scorpion compound in the town of Tokmok."
The March 9 memo also said the United States has undertaken several
humanitarian projects in Kyrgyzstan, including the renovation of a school in
Birdik and the planned construction of a women's shelter at a women's business
Bakiyev has frequently expressed concerns over security in recent years. In
June 2009, while the Pakistani government was engaged in a major offensive
against Taliban insurgents dug in along its northwestern border with
Afghanistan, he noted the seriousness of the situation. "If the conflict
against the Taliban further deepens in Afghanistan, then toward which direction
would they escape?" he asked. "God save us, but they would [move] toward
Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan."
Bakiyev has also in the past underlined the possible threats of extremist
groups infiltrating southern Kyrgyzstan, which was once targeted by Uzbek
Armed fighters from the banned Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) entered
Batken in 1999, kidnapping the local mayor and Japanese geologists. The
hostages were subsequently freed after a large ransom was reportedly paid and a
helicopter was provided to fly the militants to Afghanistan.
Located in the volatile Ferghana Valley, Batken also borders Tajikistan's
Tavildara area, a onetime stronghold of Islamic opposition forces with close
ties to IMU leaders. The US plans for a counter-terrorism training center will
apparently bolster Kyrgyzstan's efforts to strengthen security in its southern
region, but some observers believe the plan could upset Moscow.
Russia has not officially commented on the announced US plans for a base in
Batken. But Aleksandr Knyazev, a political analyst for the CIS Institute in
Bishkek who is seen as favoring the Kremlin's point of view, says Bishkek is
being "irresponsible", seeing as the Kyrgyz economy depends on Russian
investment to a great extent.
Throwing down the gauntlet
"Such a demonstrative act by the Kyrgyz side to agree - or to initiate, most
likely - to [build the US-funded counter-terrorism center] is like throwing
down a challenge to Russia and China," Knyazev says. "From a purely military
point of view, any American military base on Kyrgyz territory cannot threaten
Russian interests. Russia dominates in this region in any case. It's clear. But
[Bishkek's plan] is only an irritation of a political nature for Russia, and a
reason to withdraw from investment projects."
One country has officially commented on the presence of Western military
facilities in Central Asia. Without mentioning any specific location, Iran's
Foreign Minister Manuchehr Mottaki said on March 8 that "foreign military bases
in the region do not contribute to the strengthening of [regional] stability,
but originate from interventional and expansionists aims".
Mottaki said regional leaders - before signing agreements over hosting foreign
military bases in their territories - should consider whether these bases
wouldn't create threats to neighboring countries.
RFE/RL's Kyrgyz Service contributed to this report.