SEOUL - Take a man-made island, roughly the size of London's Hampstead Heath.
Fill it with state-of-the-art schools, hospitals, apartments, office buildings
and high-end cultural amenities. Import architectural features from around the
world, including New York's Central Park and Venice's canals, make English the lingua
franca, and hang a sign at the gates that says: "Open for business".
Attempting a project like that would be a risky venture in the best of times,
let alone in the middle of Asia's worst business slump since the 1970s. Putting
it mostly in the hands of a single, largely untested, United States firm and
financing it with recycled real-estate profits sounds like an act of lunacy.
Yet this is what is
what is happening in South Korea, and strangest of all, it appears to be
Built on 607 hectares of land reclaimed from the Yellow Sea off Incheon, about
56 kilometers west of the South Korea's capital, Seoul, New Songdo City is
billed as the largest private real-estate development in history - Korea's
answer to Shanghai and Dubai. Five years ago it barely existed on a map.
Korea says that by 2015, when it is due for completion, this speck of
strategically placed foggy flatland will be the world's gateway to Northeast
Asia - a free economic zone with 80,000 apartments, 4.6 million square meters
of office space and nearly one million square feet of retail space.
That only scratches the shiny surface of Songdo's ambition. The city aims to do
nothing less than banish the problems created by modern urban life. Asian
business capitals, say the city's publicity blurbs, are "racked" by
environmental damage, undereducated workforces and a lack of available space.
"It would seem a city that enjoys clean air ... and a superior quality of life
just doesn't exist anymore." Songdo solves that problem by building from the
ground up, providing "everything one could possibly want, need and dream of in
a world-class city".
So forget Asia's choking metropolises: 40% of Songdo is officially designated
"green", including the centerpiece 40.5 hectare park. The city's main car depot
has been buried in a sunken courtyard to keep heat and emissions down. A sleek
public transport system including underground trains linked to Seoul and a
network of electric water taxis in the city's salt-water canals will help make
this one of the cleanest urban areas on the planet. Ironically, perhaps,
protests about the city's environmental impact on internationally important
tidal-flats have dogged - though not derailed - its construction.
It all sounds too good to be true, and perhaps it is. But for now, New
York-based real estate company Gale International, in a 70-30 partnership with
Korean steelmaking and construction giant Posco, is having little trouble
selling the dream. Songdo's first block of 2,600 apartments was oversubscribed
by about eight to one when it went up for grabs in 2006. Another 1,000 will
come onto the market this year, and despite the sour economic data pouring out
of Asia, Gale sees little difficulty in offloading them.
"Koreans believe in this project," says British-born David G Moore of Gale's
project management team. "They view this as an investment in the future."
Others apparently agree. Sheraton opened a new 319-bedroom hotel in August,
golfing legend Jack Nicklaus is overseeing the construction of an 18-hole 7,300
yard (6,600 meter) championship course; and in April this year, US tech
multinational Cisco Systems signed a multi-billion dollar deal to provide
network technologies to the new city.
Like most grandiose schemes, Songdo is suspended on a billowy featherbed of
confidence - and debt. Gale has gone billions into the red to build its
state-of-the-art showcase. The 65-floor Northeast Asia Trade Tower, which will
be Korea's tallest building when complete. It has been refinanced, despite the
fact that main lender Shinhan Bank, in the words of one insider, "shuddered"
when the global economic crisis hit Korea last year.
Rumors that the project could be in trouble, unable to secure loans from banks
that have grown newly stingy, forced Incheon's famously gung-ho Mayor Ahn
Sang-soo on the defensive in the summer. "The current global economic crisis
won't deter us," he said. With global investors becoming more selective, Mayor
Ahn and Gale assert that Songdo will shine even brighter among the charred
wreckage of failed real-estate ventures. "It's different from any other project
because we've maintained real quality," says Moore. "That's why people are
still buying into it."
Few doubt the quality of the architecture and construction. Most components of
the city, from the 44,000 square meter International School to Songdo's $155
million convention center, which opened last October, are state of the art. The
glittering campus of the school, affiliated with the prestigious US-based
Milton Academy, has facilities to rival most universities, including a 650-seat
theatre and a TV studio in the basement connected to the Internet that will
allow its young students to broadcast around the planet. "They've spared
nothing," says the school's head, Jorge Nelson. "It is probably the most
advanced school in the world."
However, South Korea's Ministry of Education in July rejected the school's
application to open this autumn, stating that it failed to meet nine of the 10
criteria for running a school. Parents who moved to Songdo will have to make
other arrangements for their children this year.
Computers will be built into the houses, streets and offices as part of a
"ubiquitous" network linking everyone in a sort of digital commune that is
expected to be a high-tech technological showcase - despite privacy concerns.
The lead architect, US firm Kohn Pedersen Fox, calls it "the project of a
lifetime". The firm's head, James von Klemperer, told Architectural Record this
year that it boasted "everything ... That includes culture, health, education,
commerce, and recreation." After decades struggling in the shadows of giant
neighbors Japan and rising China, Korea believes the world will now come to it.
"You know, by the middle of this century, this region [East Asia] will produce
40%" of the world's gross domestic product, says Hee Yhon Song, chairman of the
Asia Development Institute. Mr Song says South Korea's central geographical
position - Seoul is a two-hour flight from Beijing and Tokyo - along with its
size, mature economy, and Western-educated elite, give it advantages few in the
region can match. "I believe we are unique," he says.
Still, many wonder if the mostly privately financed project, variously
estimated at $20 billion to $40 billion, will continue to defy economic
gravity. An earlier blueprint crashed and burned after the 1997/8 financial
crisis before Incheon was reborn as a free economic zone in 2001.
But the venture has the crucial backing of the South Korean government, which
is underwriting the city's infrastructure, including the high-speed rail system
that will ferry people to and from Seoul, and the newly built (2001) Incheon
International Airport. A 12.3 kilometer bridge linking the airport to Songdo is
almost complete. That rock-solid state guarantee has helped banish concerns
that the entire program is built on swampy ground.
Incheon has sold off parcels of land at premium prices to Gale, Posco and other
developers, attracting $9 billion in foreign investment since the first brick
was laid in 2004, and perhaps four times that amount in promises, according to
The Korea Herald. The developers must keep shifting retail space and other real
estate or the whole process grinds to a halt. The first post-recession test
comes this year when more apartments come up for sale.
Songdo is the latest, and one of the most spectacular examples of what urban
theorist Mike Davis calls "imagineered urbanism" - cities, sometimes built from
scratch, where "all the arduous intermediate stages of commercial evolution
have been telescoped or short-circuited to embrace the 'perfected' synthesis of
shopping, entertainment and architectural spectacle". Asia, particularly China,
is the locus for many of these projects.
In the Meixi Lake District, in central China's Hunan province, Dale plans
another 677-hectare state-of-the-art green city, with high-tech offices,
apartments, schools, malls, five-star hotel, and a world-class convention
center, "all set within an integrated, people-friendly lake environment and
surrounded by abundant green space." Like Songdo, Meixi is backed by the state
- the Changsha municipal government.
Then there is Dubai in the United Arab Emirates, the planet's largest building
site, after Shanghai, complete with the world's biggest shopping mall, theme
park, airport, artificial island, and a 7-star hotel offering rooms at $5,000
per night. Fueled, at least until the global financial crash, on a high-octane
cocktail of oil money, cheap labor and architectural gigantism, critics say
Dubai is an ecological folly. Davis contemptuously calls it "[Albert] Speer
meets Disney on the shores of Araby".
The cities are, in effect, gated communities, bounded by high walls of cash
that bar access to the poor. An average apartment in Songdo costs $500,000,
with some going for twice or three times that. Fees at the International School
start at $25,000 a year. Even shopping at the 10,000 square meter Taubman
Shopping Center will be out of the range of many ordinary Koreans, admit the
Will it succeed? The history of purpose-built cities such as Brasilia,
Islamabad and Canberra, as opposed to those that have grown organically, is not
encouraging. Songdo risks becoming a sterile urban theme park, warn some
observers. "If you live in Manhattan, why would you want to live in a new town
in Long Island or somewhere like that?" wonders Mo Jongryn, a professor at
Seoul's Yonsei University.
Songdo's planners counter that it is unique, offering a mix of business,
educational and leisure facilities that will convince skeptics and attract
Korea's share of the global, English-speaking techno-elite. The center's
centerpiece is the Global University Campus, a collaborative attempt to blend
Korean, European and American academic strengths. At least two US colleges -
the State University of New York at Stony Brook and North Carolina State
University - have signed up to the project and another three are in line.
The model is similar to Qatar's Education City, in which American and British
universities will offer undergraduate programs inside a single campus, while
administering them separately. Songdo's Global Campus will eventually bypass
the academic shortcomings of Korea's mostly moribund colleges, incubate
world-beating research and seed spin-off businesses, says Song. "I believe that
without this university the Songdo project will not succeed."
Not everybody is so enthusiastic. Academics at other universities, including
Yonsei, say they have been shoehorned into moving to Songdo thanks to
sweetheart deals with the Incheon government. "Nobody on the Yonsei campus
wants to move to Incheon," claims Horace Underwood, a professor emeritus at
Yonsei. "Every department and organization is fighting against it."
He says the attempt to move the university's international program to Songdo
will "destroy" them. "When an international student (typically Korean-American)
has to choose between Yonsei at Incheon and a Korea University program in
Seoul, that student will go to the campus in the city."
Problems or not, Songdo will keep going, Mo insists. "The government is in a
big bind, and can't pull out of the project. Once you start something this big
it is unstoppable. Billions have been invested. If you stop at one-third, the
money is lost and the people who are already there will be angry. You have to
go all the way."
David McNeill writes for The Independent and other publications,
including The Irish Times and The Chronicle of Higher Education. He is an
Asia-Pacific Journal coordinator. He wrote this article for The Asia-Pacific